DESCRIPTION Ultrasound imaging is a method based on the principle of bouncing ultrasound waves from a device, so called probe (transducer, converter), connected to an ultrasound device that acquires grayscale images that illustrate the structure of organs (2D images). Various types of examinations use different types of probes.
The colour Doppler ultrasound is a more advanced ultrasound technique that shows structures through which blood flows (heart and blood vessels) and is based on the principle of bouncing probe-emitted ultrasound waves from blood cells.
The screen provides an image showing blood flow in red and blue tones, and adjusting the device parameters provides a line graph along with a sound signal indicating the type of vessel, resistance and flow speed. This enables determining changes such as narrowing (stenosis) or absolute cessation of flow (e.g. thrombosis).
The Power Doppler is a type of Dopple ultrasound that displays weaker and less accessible flows.The M-mode methods, tissue and strain ultrasound are used solely for cardiac ultrasounds.
4 D Echocardiography
4 D echocardiogaphy shows us all the structures shown in 3 dimensions (the fourth dimension is the time) in gray color, as well as in the presentation of tissue Doppler and deformation. It gives us a moving image that is displayed in real time.
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Echocardiography is a technique that examines the heart, its appearance and size of the cardiac chambers (atrium and ventricle), thickness and movements of the heart muscle (myocardium), flow through the heart valves (valves) and appearance of the heart membrane (pericardium).
This enables us to identify disorders in the way the right the heart works (cardiomyopathy), changes in the valves (e.g., aortic stenosis, mitral valve prolapse) or in the heart membrane (pericardial effusion).
Our ultrasound device, in addition to the standard M mode, 2D and Colour Doppler techniques,makes it possible to perform a tissue Doppler,as well as a strain ultrasound image and 4D ehocardiography.
Colour Doppler ultrasound imaging of arm and leg arteries and veins covers a number of examinations that show the blood vessels in arms and legs, and generally, separately ( e.g. leg veins, arm arteries or Doppler imaging of the left leg veins).
Such examinations reveal changes in the structure of blood vessels, e.g. narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries, blockage of veins (thrombosis)and changes to vein surfaces in the legs (varicose veins, venous insufficiency).
Colour and Power Doppler ultrasound imaging of carotid and vertebral arteries is an examination that analyses blood vessels in the neck. This enables viewing of deposits (plaque) on the walls of carotid arteries, which is potentially important due to the possibility (under some circumstances) of some of the plaque breaking off and entering the brain through the blood flow thus causing a stroke.
Sufficiently-sized plaque obstructs blood flow and even narrows the flow (stenosis) causing reducing blood supply to brain tissue. Changes in the morphology of vertebral arteries may at times cause dizziness.
Colour Doppler ultrasound imaging of kidney arteries and veins due to its complexity and requirements is performed as a separate examination. Its shows the kidney (renal) arteries (and associated veins) from their departure on the abdominal artery to its entry into the both kidneys.
The examination is performed on patients with recently diagnosed hypertension, where there is a suspicion that its cause is due to the narrowing of one of the renal arteries (renal arterial stenosis).
This examination analyses organs and other structures in the abdominal cavity. Accordingly, it reveals the liver along with the gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and bladder.
The Colour Doppler enables imaging of blood circulation in the abdomen, which includes the abdominal aorta and branches, inferior vena cava, renal and liver circulation. The abdominal ultrasound displays changes in the structure of the organs, for example, kidney or gallbladder stones, to the tumour changes that require further examination. It also shows changes in blood vessels (e.g. aortic aneurysm, thrombosis, inferior vena cava).
Note: For the examination to be as precise as possible and optimal quality, it should be done preferably on an empty stomach. Patients who due to work and other obligations can do so, are scheduled into the first morning sessions so that they can go on with their daily routines.
Colourand Power Doppler ultrasound imaging of the thyroid gland is an examination that displays the thyroid gland using 2D ultrasound imaging of its structure and size, and the use of the Colour Doppler to record degree of blood flow – vascularization. This test shows changes in structure and vascularisation which sometimes indicates abnormal functioning (changes in the secretion of thyroid hormones) that requires treatment. This also reveals the focal changes –“nodes”, which require monitoring or further treatment.